Syngas from Waste: Emerging Technologies by Luis Puigjaner (auth.), Luis Puigjaner (eds.)

By Luis Puigjaner (auth.), Luis Puigjaner (eds.)

Syngas from Waste provides the newest suggestions, equipment and methods for the initial layout of a promising rising expertise: construction of fresh syngas from waste material. An in-depth account is given of the stairs essential to in attaining the optimal layout and updated instruments are awarded to help the designer’s decision-making initiatives: modelling, simulation and optimization. various illustrations and tables are incorporated to facilitate the reader’s figuring out, in addition to feedback for additional studying. The textual content is complemented with sensible examples and commercial purposes starting from fresh strength iteration to advanced mixed warmth and gear structures and excessive purity hydrogen to be used in gas cells.

Syngas from Waste includes fine quality contributions from prime specialists within the box. it truly is meant for teachers at MSc or PhD point, researchers and practitioners in syngas creation and purposes, who're taken with the layout, retrofit layout and evaluate actions of different situations. It includes invaluable instructing fabric for academics and offers pros with the knowledge to judge and enhance current installations or perhaps to layout a brand new one.

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M. Laínez et al. Notation Indices e Suppliers f, f 0 Facility locations i Tasks j Equipment technology s Materials (states) t, t0 Planning periods a Mid-point environmental impact categories g End-point environmental impact categories Sets Ag Erm ^ prod E " tr E Fe FP Ij "Je ~ Jf Ji Mkt NTr RM Sup Ts T"s Tr Set of mid-point environmental interventions that are combined into end-point damage factors g Set of suppliers e that provide raw materials Set of suppliers e that provide production services Set of suppliers e that provide transportation services Set of locations f where supplier e is placed Set of materials s that are final products Set of tasks i that can be performed in technology j Technology j that is available at supplier e Technology j that can be installed at location f Technologies that can perform task i Set of market locations Set of non-distribution tasks Set of materials s that are raw materials Set of supplier locations Set of tasks producing material s Set of tasks consuming material s Set of distribution tasks Parameters Asft Demsft distanceff0 FCFJjft IftJ NormFg Pricesft PriceJjft Maximum availability of raw material s in period t in location f Demand of product s at market f in period t Distance from location f to location f0 Fixed cost per unit of technology j capacity at location f in period t Investment required to establish a processing facility in location f in period t Normalising factor of damage category g Price of product s at market f in period t Investment required per unit of technology j capacity increased at facility f in period t Raw Materials Supply rate Waters Watermax ij asij "asij bjf fag hijff 0 qtreff 0 t sut1 ijfet sut2 sfet vest wijff 0 a wTija 25 Discount rate Moisture for material s Maximum moisture for task i performed in equipment j Mass fraction of task i for production of material s in equipment j Mass fraction of task i for consumption of material s in equipment j Minimum utilisation rate of technology j capacity that is allowed at location f g end-point damage characterisation factor for environmental intervention a Capacity utilisation rate of technology j by task i whose origin is location f and destination location f 0 Unitary transportation costs from location f to location f 0 during period t Unitary cost associated with task i performed in equipment j from location f and payable to external supplier e during period t Unitary cost associated with handling the inventory of material s in location f and payable to external supplier e during period t Unitary cost of raw material s offered by external supplier e in period t a environmental category impact CF for task i performed using technology j receiving materials from node f and delivering it at node f 0 a environmental category impact CF for the transportation of a mass unit of material over a length unit Binary Variables Vjft 1 if technology j is installed at location f in period t, 0 otherwise Continuous Variables DamCgft DamCSC g EPurchet ESalest FAssett FCostt Fjft FEjft ICaft Impact2002 f Impact2002 overall LHVsi NPV Pijff0 t Normalised end-point damage g for location f in period t Normalised end-point damage g along the whole SC Economic value of purchases executed in period t to supplier e Economic value of sales executed in period t Investment on fixed assets in period t Fixed cost in period t Total capacity of technology j during period t at location f Capacity increment of technology j at location f during period t Mid-point a environmental impact associated to site f which rises from activities in period t Total environmental impact for site f Total environmental impact for the whole SC Lower heating value for material s in task i Net present value Activity magnitude of task i in equipment j in period t whose origin is location f and destination location f 0 26 J.

The possible consumer sites are the already existing gas stations in Austria, while methanol production is considered through the use of gasification plants. The evaluation of three scenarios is performed, based on different methanol-gasoline blends. By-production of heat is also considered as economic revenue, and CO2 emissions are accounted finally, but not introduced in their model as an environmental objective to be accomplished. Later on, Ayoub et al. [7] present a methodology for designing and evaluating the biomass utilisation networks (so called B-NETs), which are process networks aiming at producing different bioproducts, from one or more biomass resources.

Heating value, moisture content and bulk density are the key parameter changes that biomass undergo along the SC. The objectives to be optimised are the operating cost and emissions of the whole SC. Definitely, energy policies are driven by environmental considerations, more specifically by the pressure on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In that sense, biomass is an energy source that is expected to provide significant reductions of environmental impacts related to GHG emissions when compared to the classical fossil fuels technologies.

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