The Cambridge Medieval History - Vol. 5 ; Contest of Empire by J. B. Bury with J. R. Tanner, C. W. Previté-Orton and Z. N.

By J. B. Bury with J. R. Tanner, C. W. Previté-Orton and Z. N. Brooke

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Translations from Greek and from Arabic . . ..... . . .......... ..... ........ ...... ...... Roger Bacon Muslim influence Farabi and Avicenna Algazel, AverroeSj Avencebrol Aristotelianism and the University of Paris Albertus Magnus, Aquinas, and Averroism Siger of Brabant Opposition to Thomism Philosophy and the Church The relation of reason to faith Roger Bacon's philosophy The final aim of medieval philosophy Duns Scotus The coming . revolutions in thought 796 800 803 805 ib. 808 809 810 811 ih.

Episcopal elections improvement sometimes caused bloodshed: when the Abbot Erluin of Lobbes, trying to enforce the Rule, expelled some malcontents, three of them fell upon him, cut out his tongue, and blinded him. The story of the great Italian monastery of Farfa is typical. It had been favoured by Emperors and was scarcely excelled for splendour. Then it was seized by the Saracens (before 915) and afterwards burnt by Christian robbers. Its members were scattered to Rome, Rieti, and Fermo; its lands were lost or wasted; there was no recognised abbot, and after Abbot Peter died his successor Rimo lived with the Farfa colony at Rome and there was poisoned.

By the middle of the eleventh century the old style of election had disappeared in France, and the bishopric was treated as a fief. In Germany the bishops, although for the most part men of high character, were often supporters of the crown and the mainstay of its administration; when a bishop or a great abbot died, the chapter and the great laymen of the diocese sent deputies to the court, and after a consultation with them, in which they might or might not suggest a choice, the king filled up the office.

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