The Colonization of Unfamiliar Landscapes: The Archaeology by Marcy Rockman, James Steele

By Marcy Rockman, James Steele

A sequence of case experiences examines the archaeological proof for and interpretations of panorama studying from the stream of the 1st pre-modern people into Europe to the English colonists at Jamestown.

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N. E. and A. J. Roberts (1996) “Reviewing the British Late Upper Palaeolithic: New Evidence for Chronological Patterning in the Lateglacial Record,” Oxford Journal of Archaeology 15(3):245–65. Basso, Keith (1996) Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language among the Western Apache, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Beaton, John M. (1991) “Colonizing Continents: Some Problems from Australia and the Americas,” in Tom D. Dillehay and David J. Meltzer (eds) The First Americans: Search and Research, Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

1999; Kelly and Todd 1988; Meltzer 1995; O’Brien 1984; Webb and Rindos 1997) suggest that, at present, the issue of knowledge in archaeological approaches to colonization occurs in two primary aspects. The first lies in the motivations that are considered for colonization and the second in the actual physical orientations of movement presented in colonization models. 8 KNOWLEDGE AND LEARNING Motivations for colonization are clearly discussed by Anthony (1997) in terms of “push” and “pull” factors.

Ethnographic evidence suggests that individuals gather environmental information from two sources that operate on different timescales. The first source is direct individual exploration and experience (after Brody 1981; also Binford 1980, 1983; analysis in O’Brien 1984). The second is knowledge incorporated into social practice, interaction, and lore (see Minc 1986; also Cruikshank 1981; Moodie et al. 1992; Widlok 1997). While to date no archaeologists have accompanied colonizers on extended migrations into unfamiliar areas, ethnoarchaeological fieldwork among a number of hunter-gatherer groups suggests that it is quite difficult for archaeologists to overestimate the abilities and acuities of such groups in matters of the natural environment (see Chapter 3 of this volume; also Binford 1980; Brody 1981; Kelly 1995).

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