The Design of Low Noise Oscillators by Ali Hajimiri

By Ali Hajimiri

Oscillators are a basic construction block of many communications structures. calls for on spectral purity proceed to bring up as a result of constraints on to be had spectrum, and for this reason there was a necessity to appreciate higher accurately what motives jitter and part noise and what to do approximately it. This ebook offers a quantitatively description of the way circuit and machine noise turns into oscillator section noise and makes use of this new version to educate the reader tips to layout low noise oscillators. The emphasizes the built-in oscillators and addresses matters concerning layout of built-in oscillators. It exploits so-called cyclostationary houses of noise to enhance the spectral purity of the oscillator.

This booklet applies examines in nice element the habit of either tuned and rest oscillators. Long-standing conundrums (such as ''what is the optimal variety of phases in a hoop oscillator?'') are resolved at final, and a huge framework for answering questions as but unasked is equipped.

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It is assumed that stages neither turn off nor their transconductances change dramatically during one cycle of operation. Again applying the Barkhausen criterion, the total phase shift around the loop should be in steady state. 9. should be 1. , the output power density will be given by [47] Review of Existing Models 27 Review of Existing Models There are three such noise sources in the circuit. 17). Dividing the noise power by the carrier power, an expression for the phase noise due to the channel noise is obtained: where is the power dissipated in the load device.

Therefore, for a noise voltage source in series with an inductor, should be replaced with where represents the maximum magnetic flux swing in the inductor, L, and is the maximum current swing in the inductor. Therefore, the phase noise due to such source is given by Time-Variant Phase Noise Model 53 Time-Variant Phase Noise Model where is the voltage mean-square density per unit bandwidth and rms value of the ISF for the voltage source. 2 Phase Jitter As mentioned in CHAPTER 2, timing jitter is the preferred parameter for quantifying frequency instabilities in digital circuits.

13). 13). The ISF for this oscillator is obtained by direct simulation, in which very short pulses of current are injected and the induced phase shift is measured, as described in Appendix D. Here, is equal to where is approximated by the average capacitance on each node of the circuit and is the maximum swing across it. 17 depicts the simulated and predicted sideband powers for a sinusoidal injected current of amplitude and an of 50MHz. As can be seen from the figure, these agree to within 1dB for the higher power sidebands.

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