The Effect of Modern Agriculture on Rural Development by Gyorgy Enyedi

By Gyorgy Enyedi

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According to one critic, the formal demarcation of two sister corporations, one with a 'social' focus 54 MODERN AGRICULTURE/RURAL DEVELOPMENT 1 and the other with an 'economic focus perpetuated an already mythological differentiation between a marginal family-based agriculture and an 'efficient' commercial agriculture. (3) Meanwhile, additional allocations of small holdings to needy and deserving farmers, and even to urban dwellers anxious to break away from the strictures of industrial employment (and unemployment), have proceeded sluggishly.

Much more attention must be paid to the further industrialization of the northern areas, since there are regional reserves in the utilization of resources. Moreover, redirection of labor to southern areas can be avoided in the future. In a number of studies, the changes in the housing conditions of the rural population are being investigated. 5 percent. 0 percent. There was a particularly large increase in the connection to the public water mains, from 24 percent to 63 percent. Between 1945 and 1970, 230,000 new homes were built in the countryside.

Thus, the interpretation of the changes which characterize French agriculture have given rise to numerous conflicting theories about the processes involved. The thesis relating to the development of agrarian capitalism has been abandoned, given the decline in the salaried labor force, the weak division of labor in agriculture despite technical progress, and the weak development of large holdings. Other theses have therefore been advanced. One is that of the proletariatization, in atypical form, of agriculturalists, who have tended to become domestic workers for the food processing industry; another is that of the reinforcement of small-scale commercial production, as desired by capitalism, to such an extent that the nonindustrializable character of the agricultural work process FRANCE: AGRICULTURE & RURAL CHANGE 25 and the land problem oppose the intrusion of capitalist forms of relationship.

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