End of the Jihad State: Reign of Hisham Ibn ’Abd al-Malik by Khalid Y. Blankinship

By Khalid Y. Blankinship

Stretching from Morocco to China, the Umayyad caliphate established its enlargement and luck at the doctrine of jihad--armed fight to assert the total earth for God’s rule, a fight that had introduced a lot fabric luck for a century yet abruptly floor to a halt by way of the cave in of the ruling Umayyad dynasty in 750 CE. the tip of the Jihad country demonstrates for the 1st time that the reason for this cave in got here not only from inner clash, as has been claimed, yet from a few exterior and concurrent components that surpassed the caliphate’s potential to reply.

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Not only do strange or incredible appearances become a defining feature of fabulae, but these narratives themselves are sometimes figured as presenting a strange or implausible “form” to the reader. 2). 16 Indeed, his incapacity to identify with the perspectives of either of the characters in the Pan and Syrinx story is precisely what qualifies him to act as Io’s guard. He can neither recognize or identify with the metamorphosed object of the god’s desire nor, like Pan, can he desire her himself.

If metamorphosis generally marks the limit of what is consistent with the moral seriousness of heroic epic, this is the line on which Metamorphoses dances. The poem’s meter, size, and incorporation of the Trojan and Roman subject matter of epic invite the reader to view the poem in its entirety as a rival to those earlier works. Should we read metamorphosis through epic eyes, with an even greater awareness of its essential unbelievability and trivializing effect? Can the epic form even save the Metamorphoses from itself by transfiguring its fabulous subject matter into a grand history of the Augustan world, just as Vergil allows metamorphosis a new role in his poem?

12 And as Io’s shape alone can suffice to categorize and define her, so too the poem’s linguistic play, the attention it attracts to its own form, can seem to take over the narrative content, partly, in the sense we have seen, in that the story that is told can seem to be so self-referential that it does nothing but provide an allegory for the style of the narrative itself. But that is not all there is to the relationship between narrative form and the form of the characters. The problem of Io’s changed form offers more than a paradigm for how the reader can interpret the text of the Io story.

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