The Genetics of Cardiovascular Disease by Edward B. Clark (auth.), Mary Ella Mascia Pierpont M.D.,

By Edward B. Clark (auth.), Mary Ella Mascia Pierpont M.D., Ph.D., James H. Moller M.D. (eds.)

Over the earlier 25 years, the starting to be impor­ cardiovascular. we are hoping that through having this tance of genetic components within the simple comprehend­ compilation of cardiovascular illnesses in a single ing of human heart problems has turn into resource, will probably be of price to all who're concerned obvious. sooner than this time, there has been an period within the care of sufferers with cardiovascular dis­ whilst heart problems used to be first considered comfy or their households. the diagnostic point through an period while the 1st six chapters of this publication delineate heart problems was once seen at a therapy stipulations with regards to congenital cardiac mal­ point. the 1st period happened on the flip of the formations. Their etiology isn't accurately century with the 1st medical reputation of identified, so we've incorporated chapters that dis­ signs and styles for analysis of auto­ cuss many points of congenital cardiac mal­ diovascular illnesses. the improvement of formations. the 1st bankruptcy presents discus­ diagnostic technique, reminiscent of radiographic sion of mechanisms of maldevelopment of the reviews and electrocardiography, resulted in marked middle. We think that those mechanisms professional­ alterations in our figuring out of cardiovascular vide a foundation for realizing the genetic and sickness. this period was once by means of more suitable environmental components which function to supply tools of clinical therapy, advent congenital cardiac malformations. bankruptcy 2 describes the prevalence of con­ of medicine comparable to antibiotics, and extra genital cardiac malformations in households and complex surgical techniques.

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56] Baseline Frequency and Pattern of Congenital Heart Disease To evaluate the effect of a teratogen, the "natural" or baseline (background) frequency of congenital heart disease must be known. To determine a teratogen-specific pattern, the distribution of various kinds of cardiac anomalies must be studied. Furthermore, to be credible, the baseline information must be based upon samples greater than 35,000 pregnancies (see risk assessment). We have therefore chosen figures published by the concerted action of the European Economic Community (EEC) in the "European Registry of Congenital Abnormalities and Twins" (EUROCAT).

As far as retionol is concerned, among the six abnormal children described in isolated cases of hypervitaminosis A during pregnancy, no infant had congenital heart disease. [53,54,132-134] On the other hand, Hussain using the approach of Gal and associates [135] has observed seven cardiac malformations and four cases of spina bifida among 30 stillbirths whose liver vitamin A levels were elevated to 72-255 J-Lg/g. " The general aspects of Bendectin have been largely analyzed by Holmes [137] and Brent.

4%) had some form of congenital heart disease. , 1976 [172] Van Biervliet, 1977 [173] Nishimura, Tanimura, 1976 [53] Walters, 1983 [174] mide. The spectrum of anomalies is similar in the exposure studies and in the samples of fetal alcohol syndrome. Given an appropriate dosage, alcohol is a definite cardiovascular teratogen, even if the rule of absence of an all-or-none effect discussed earlier holds true (32% to 42% incidence). ANTICONVULSANTS Three different categories of reports could be identified in the large bibliography concerning the effect of anticonvulsants on the heart and 39 3.

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