The Influence of Culture and Personality on Customer by Franziska Krüger

By Franziska Krüger

Franziska Krüger offers quantitative cross-cultural stories that learn the generalizability of the quarter of Tolerance and the Confirmation/Disconfirmation-Paradigm throughout nations. She investigates the capability impact of Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the large 5 character qualities at the versions' variables. consequently, the stories be sure that either types can be utilized to provide an explanation for patron delight and its determinants throughout nationwide borders and cultures.

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P. 155. 86 Inequalities among people are expected and desired in countries scoring high in power distance. Status is be balanced with restraint and the dependence of less powerful people is accepted. Hierarchy means existential inequality in high power distance countries. ”87 Members of societies that score high in uncertainty avoidance show a need for clarity and structure, are more resistant to changes, and are rather task oriented compared to those societies scoring low in uncertainty avoidance.

If coding (assigning answers to response categories for open-ended questions) and editing (correcting inconsistent answers) is done separately for each research 149 See Lachman (1997), p. 317. Loc. cit. See van Herk/Poortinga/Verhallen(2005), pp. 351-364; Malhotra/Agarwal/Peterson (1996), pp. 13-28. 152 See van Herk/Poortinga/Verhallen (2005), p. 358. 153 Van Herk, Poortinga, and Verhallen (2005) suggested a central coordination of these activities to minimize the risk of item bias at this stage.

The aim of Study II is to support the generalizablity of the C/D-Paradigm across cultures and to identify the potential influence of culture and personality on the expected performance, perceived performance, disconfirmation, and satisfaction of individuals (Chapter 4). The studies will be presented in the following. com) Pre-test of the questionnaire and translations Subjects: 15 students of a German BBA program; Parallel translations with two bilingual native speakers eachfor each country Data collection in Brazil, China, France, Germany, Sweden and the USA Subjects: students from Brazil (N = 24), China (N = 56), France (N = 103), Germany (N = 111), Sweden (N = 145), USA (N = 72) Data analysis Result: Identification of the three most important product attributes in each country; examination of the zone of tolerance and selected determinants Pre-study to Study II Qualitative study(free listing) to define more than adequate, adequate, and less than adequate performance levels for the five product attributes as identified from Study I Subjects: students from China (N = 14), Germany (N = 32), USA (N = 12) Result: most common expressions to describe the corresponding performance levels Study II Questionnaire formulation; Formulation of test and experience reports; Setup of the questionnaire Pretesting and modification; Pre-test 1: discussion of the questionnaire with a focus group; Pre-test 2: manipulation checks with resulting modifications of scenarios; Pre-test 3: manipulations checks Subjects pre-test 1: 11 business students Subjects pre-test 2: 34 business students Subjects pre-test 3: 28 business students Data analysis of pre-test 1 and 2 and translation of the questionnaire Data collection in China, Germany, USA Data analysis 36 Subjects: students from China (N = 318),Germany (N = 314), USA (N = 313) Result: A comparison of the structure of the C/DParadigm between countries and the influence of culture and personality on expected performance, perceived performance, disconfirmation, and satisfaction 3 Study I: The Structure of the Zone of Tolerance Across Countries and Individuals In the consumer behavior literature expectations are discussed as a key concept to explain the formation of customer satisfaction.

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