The logic of nature, complexity and new physics: From by Antonino Zichichi

By Antonino Zichichi

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Laxhuber and H. M6hwald, Phys. Rev. Lett.. in press 5. W. Frey, G. Schneider, H. Ringsdorf and E. Sackmann, Macromolecules. in press 6. G. Schneider, H. Joosten, W. Knoll and E. Sackmann, Europhysics Lett. 1, 449 (1986) 7. J. M. Moy, J. Phys. Chem. 90. 2311 (1986) 8. E. T. M. McConnell, J. Phys. Chem. 90. 1721 (1986) 1. 36 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Radiation damage cannot be excluded in the coexistence region. The exposure times are rather long and the electron diffraction experiments show that the damage occurs an order of magnitude faster below 1tc than in the completely condensed state.

Vesicle deformation tests are based on simple pressurization by micropipet suction. After the vesicle is pressurized into a spherical shape, further suction acts to dilate the surface area and reduce internal volume. Because the pressures involved in these tests are several orders of magnitude smaller than the pressure required to filter water from the vesicle (against osmotic activity of the trapped solutes), vesicle volumes remain constant. Displacement of the vesicle inside the suction pipet is due to reduction in surface density of the amphiphiles.

L~ Kf' Fig. 5: a) Schematic view of phospholipid molecules stressing the non-equivalence of the two chains and the polar shape of the glycerol backbone with the phosphate group attached to it. b )Discontinuity in orientation of head-groups of strength m = +1 (nomenclature of de Gennes) which is eqivalent to an isolated vortex in the xy-model. The black circle corresponds to the bulky phosphate group of the lipid head. c) Edge dislocation within triangular lattice of chains. Note that the repulsion between the oppOSitely oriented phosphate groups is relaxed in the dilutation region of the dislocation (arrow).

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