The Pencil: A History of Design and Circumstance by Henry Petroski
By Henry Petroski
Henry Petroski lines the origins of the pencil again to old Greece and Rome, writes factually and charmingly approximately its improvement over the centuries and around the globe, and exhibits what the pencil can train us approximately engineering and know-how at the present time.
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Extra resources for The Pencil: A History of Design and Circumstance
A poor surface contains deep or large cracks, broken, sunken or heaved concrete, or extensive spalling. If you have this kind of surface, remove the concrete completely and replace it with a new concrete slab before you lay patio tile. Dig deep, around the patio to create room for 2 × 4 2 face, then set a 2 × 2 spacer on top of the lath Clean dirt and debris from the exposed sides (their combined thickness equals the thickness of the of the patio. Cut and fit 2 × 4 frames around the patio, joining the ends with 3" deck screws.
Once the surface is smooth and level, control joints are cut and the edges are rounded. Special attention to detail in these steps will result in a professional appearance. NOTE: If you plan to add a special finish, read “Finishing & Curing Concrete” (pages 38 and 39) before you begin your project. Start pouring concrete at the farthest point from the concrete source, and work your way back. Everything You Need: Tools: Wheelbarrow, hoe, spade, hammer, mason's trowel, float, groover, edger. Materials: Concrete, 2 × 4 lumber, mixing container, water.
Creating a smoother surface on the sides. This is especially important when building steps. a screed board—a straight piece of 2 × 4 Cut control joints at marked locations (step 10, long enough to rest on opposite forms—to remove 7the Use 8 page 52) with a mason’s trowel, using a straight excess concrete before bleed water appears. 2 × 4 as a guide. Control joints are designed to conMove the screed board in a sawing motion from left to right, and keep the screed flat as you work. If screeding leaves any valleys in the surface, add fresh concrete in the low areas and screed to level.