The Science and Applications of Microbial Genomics: Workshop by Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on

By Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, Theresa Wizemann, LeighAnne Olsen, Eileen R. Choffnes

During the last numerous a long time, new clinical instruments and ways for detecting microbial species have dramatically better our appreciation of the variety and abundance of the microbiota and its dynamic interactions with the environments in which those microorganisms dwell. the 1st bacterial genome used to be sequenced in 1995 and took greater than thirteen months of labor to accomplish. this day, a microorganism's complete genome could be sequenced in a couple of days. a lot as our view of the cosmos was once perpetually altered within the seventeenth century with the discovery of the telescope, those genomic applied sciences, and the observations derived from them, have essentially remodeled our appreciation of the microbial international round us.

On June 12 and thirteen, 2012, the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) discussion board on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop in Washington, DC, to debate the clinical instruments and methods getting used for detecting and characterizing microbial species, and the jobs of microbial genomics and metagenomics to higher comprehend the culturable and unculturable microbial global round us. via invited shows and discussions, contributors tested using microbial genomics to discover the range, evolution, and variation of microorganisms in a wide selection of environments; the molecular mechanisms of ailment emergence and epidemiology; and the ways in which genomic applied sciences are being utilized to affliction outbreak hint again and microbial surveillance. issues that have been emphasised through many members integrated the necessity to strengthen strong standardized sampling protocols, the significance of getting the best metadata, facts research and knowledge administration demanding situations, and knowledge sharing in actual time. The technological know-how and purposes of Microbial Genomics summarizes this workshop.

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According to Keim, our understanding of microbial diversity has been severely biased because of our inability to culture the vast majority of microorganisms. This means that what we know about microorganisms, and microbiology generally, comes from a very, very, small subset of the microbial universe. Moreover, we have a very anthropocentric view of the microbial world and tend to focus on those microorganisms that cause illness or death in people. Non-human disease reservoirs are very important in disease ecology, but they are often difficult to identify and study because of their sometimes cryptic and transient nature within their “host” environments—making sampling extremely difficult.

14 VNTRs are short nucleotide sequences that are present in multiple copies at a particular locus in the genome. The number of repeats can vary from individual to individual, making analysis of VNTRs useful for subtyping of microorganisms. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. The Science and Applications of Microbial Genomics: Workshop Summary 23 WORKSHOP OVERVIEW Plague is also endemic in the highlands of Madagascar, resulting in at least 100 human cases of plague each year.

Using these techniques, researchers could conduct experimental investigations of specific microorganisms under controlled conditions. Our current understanding of microbe–host interactions have been influenced by more than a century of research, sparked by the germ theory of disease and rooted in historic notions of contagion that long preceded the research and intellectual syntheses of Pasteur and Koch in the 19th century (Lederberg, 2000). The success of this approach to the identification of the microbial basis of disease launched generations of “microbe hunters” who began a systematic search for disease-causing microbes that could be isolated and cultured under controlled laboratory conditions.

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