The Subthalamic Nucleus: Part I: Development, Cytology, by Enrico Marani, Tjitske Heida, Egbert A. J. F. Lakke, Kamen
By Enrico Marani, Tjitske Heida, Egbert A. J. F. Lakke, Kamen G. Usunoff
This monograph at the subthalamic nucleus accentuates partly I the space among experimental animal and human info bearing on subthalamic improvement, cytology, topography and connections. the sunshine and electron microscopical cytology matters the open nucleus suggestion and the neuronal kinds found in the STN. The cytochemistry encompasses: enzymes, NO, GFAP, calcium binding proteins, and receptors (dopamine, cannabinoid, opioid, glutamate, GABA, serotonin, cholinergic, and calcium channels). The ontogeny of the subthalamic mobile wire is reviewed. The topography issues the rat, cat, baboon and human STN. The descriptions of the connections also are given from a old viewpoint. contemporary tracer reports at the rat nigro-subthalamic connection published contralateral projections.
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Extra resources for The Subthalamic Nucleus: Part I: Development, Cytology, Topography and Connections (Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology)
The border between the subthalamic area and prerubral area is difficult to discern. In rat, Marchand (1987) used autoradiography and determined the germinative zone just caudally and dorsal of the mammillary recessus as the origin of the STN. The first migration is oriented radially and thereafter tangentially. These results are well comparable to those of the Chinese hamster. The gene expressions in longitudinal strips for the developing diencephalic and forebrain areas in fact show that the subdivisions as determined by Keyser (1972) are generally correct.
1994; Florin et al. 2000). Opioids in the rat STN exert their inhibitory action on GABA release via both µ- and δ-receptors. The opioid receptors, in general, hyperpolarize neurons by increasing membrane potassium conductance and inhibit synaptic transmission by reducing voltage-dependent calcium currents (North 1993; see also Part II of The Subthalamic Nucleus). 4 Glutamate Receptors Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors are found in the STN. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are G protein-coupled.
However, at the same age the fasciculus mammillo-tegmentalis is present, just located below the subthalamic cell cord and within the subthalamic area. Within the area above the subthalamic cell cord the tract of the zona limitans is present. The supramammillary commissure is developed at E15. At E16 the fasciculus mamillo-tegmentalis is reaching the area of the lateral rubral tegmentum, and the fasciculus retroflexus reaches from the substantia nigra towards the habenulum. From this age on the main tracti are discerned and extend their presence.