The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human by Humberto Maturana Romesín, Francisco J. Varela

By Humberto Maturana Romesín, Francisco J. Varela

"Knowing how we know" is the topic of this ebook. Its authors current a brand new view of cognition that has vital social and moral implications, for, they assert, the one global we people may have is the only we create jointly in the course of the activities of our coexistence. Written for a normal viewers in addition to for college students, students, and scientists and abundantly illustrated with examples from biology, linguistics, and new social and cultural phenomena, this revised version contains a new afterword via Dr. Varela, within which he discusses the impact the ebook has had within the years due to the fact its first ebook.

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Extra info for The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding (Revised Edition)

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This is as true for a human as it is for a dog. To Darwin, the similarities of this response pattern indicated that these different species evolved from a common ancestor, which possessed the same behavioral trait (advantageous presumably because it facilitated escape from predators). Because behavior reflects the activity of the nervous system, we can infer that the brain mechanisms that underlie this fear reaction may be similar, if not identical, across these species. The idea that the nervous systems of different species evolved from common ancestors and may have common mechanisms is the rationale for relating the results of animal experiments to humans.

Who are the neuroscientists of today, and how do they approach studying the brain? 1 Evidence of prehistoric brain surgery. This skull of a man over 7000 years old was surgically opened while he was still alive. The arrows indicate two sites of trepanation. , 1997, Fig. ) You probably already know that the nervous system—the brain, spinal cord, and nerves of the body—is crucial for life and enables you to sense, move, and think. How did this view arise? Evidence suggests that even our prehistoric ancestors appreciated that the brain was vital to life.

The stage was now set for the era of cerebral localization. 6 White matter and gray matter. The brain has been cut open to reveal these two types of tissue. 7 The basic anatomical subdivisions of the nervous system. The nervous system consists of two divisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The three major parts of the brain are the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. The PNS consists of the nerves and nerve cells that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.

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