Thermal Behavior of Photovoltaic Devices: Physics and by Olivier Dupré, Rodolphe Vaillon, Martin A. Green
By Olivier Dupré, Rodolphe Vaillon, Martin A. Green
This publication presents a complete advent to the thermal concerns in photovoltaics. It additionally deals an in depth assessment of the physics concerned and insights into attainable thermal optimizations of the several photovoltaic gadget technologies.In basic, temperature negatively impacts the potency of photovoltaic units. the 1st bankruptcy describes the temperature-induced losses in photovoltaic units and reports the recommendations to beat them. the second one bankruptcy introduces the concept that of temperature coefficient, the underlying physics and a few directions for decreasing their damaging affects. next chapters supply a entire and basic thermal version of photovoltaic units, and evaluate how present and rising applied sciences, generally sun cells but additionally thermophotovoltaic units, can reap the benefits of thermal optimizations.Throughout the booklet, the authors argue that the power yield of photovoltaic units might be optimized by way of taking their thermal habit and working stipulations into account of their design.
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Extra info for Thermal Behavior of Photovoltaic Devices: Physics and Engineering
5 eV. 2 34 2 Temperature Coefﬁcients of Photovoltaic Devices materials used in solar cells (Hirst and Ekins-Daukes 2011). In this equation, derived from the detailed balance principle, classical thermodynamic terms appear. The ﬁrst term on the right hand side, Eg ð1 À Tc =Ts Þ, contains the Carnot efﬁciency that expresses the necessity of evacuating the entropy associated with the absorbed energy flow. The second term on the right hand side, k Tc lnðXemit =Xabs Þ, corresponds to the voltage loss related to the entropy generation caused by the solid angle mismatch between absorption and emission.
2015b) quasi-Fermi levels and the conduction/valence bands give an indication on the concentrations of carriers in these bands (Green 1982). This representation shows that the Carnot and angle mismatch losses occur at the p-n junction or more generally where the charges are separated (see also Fig. 11). g. in p-i-n junction cells. This voltage drop is necessary to efﬁciently collect the photogenerated charges before too many of them recombine. Physically, a fraction of their potential energy is converted into kinetic energy during the acceleration they undergo in the junction electric ﬁeld.
Since the maximum efﬁciency of photovoltaic conversion depends on bandgap, the temperature dependence of semiconductor bandgaps impacts directly the temperature coefﬁcients. Also, since bandgaps vary with temperature, the spectrum of the incident radiation has an effect on the temperature coefﬁcients. Indeed, the number of photons with energy larger than the bandgap changes with temperature as a function of bandgap variation and photon flux density. These effects are illustrated in Figs. 9. 5 spectrum (IEC 2008) at different temperatures with the maximum efﬁciencies for different semiconductors.