Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmatics of Explicit by Robyn Carston
By Robyn Carston
Thoughts and Utterances is the 1st sustained research of 2 differences that are basic to all theories of utterance figuring out: the semantics/pragmatics contrast and the excellence among what's explicitly communicated and what's implicitly communicated.
- positive aspects the 1st sustained research of either the semantics/pragmatics contrast and the excellence among what's explicitly and implicitly communicated in speech.
Chapter 1 Pragmatics and Linguistic Underdeterminacy (pages 15–93):
Chapter 2 The Explicit/Implicit contrast (pages 94–221):
Chapter three The Pragmatics of ‘And’?Conjunction (pages 222–264):
Chapter four The Pragmatics of Negation (pages 265–319):
Chapter five The Pragmatics of On?Line thought building (pages 320–375):
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Extra info for Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmatics of Explicit Communication
Possible domains of discourse are the actual world, a fragment of the actual world (say, the current political situation in Britain), someone’s belief-world, a ﬁctional world, a fragment of some counterfactual world. He discusses the following sort of case: you and I know that Lucinda wrongly believes that Peter Mandelson is the prime minister of Britain in 1999. Knowing that Mandelson is in the next room, I utter (25) to you (in 1999): (25) Lucinda will be delighted to ﬁnd that the current prime minister of Britain is in the next room.
For instance, (13b) may be judged true in a particular context provided its peel is green even though its interior is white and its stem is brown, while in a different circumstance (say, fruits are being separated into the ripe and the unripe), the proposition expressed will be evaluated according to whether or 24 Pragmatics and Linguistic Underdeterminacy not the interior is green, the colour of the skin being irrelevant. The adjective ‘difﬁcult’ in (13c) demonstrates the context-sensitive property of ‘relativity’, that is, its applicability is relative to something else; for instance, a problem might be difﬁcult relative to my abilities but not relative to yours.
Mending this fault will take time. The north island is some distance from the south island. Something has happened. I haven’t eaten lunch. I haven’t eaten frogs’ legs. There’s nothing on telly tonight. Given reference ﬁxing, each of (16a)–(16c) expresses a trivial obvious truth: any activity takes place over a period of time; there is some distance or other between any two islands; at any moment in time something or other has happened. The point is, of course, that these dull truisms are virtually never what a speaker has intended to express; there is hardly any context in which they will be relevant.