Transnational Networks in Regional Integration: Governing by Wolfram Kaiser, Brigitte Leucht, Michael Gehler (eds.)
By Wolfram Kaiser, Brigitte Leucht, Michael Gehler (eds.)
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Extra resources for Transnational Networks in Regional Integration: Governing Europe 1945–83
Moreover, in return for providing their expertise, actors were given an opportunity to contribute to shaping not only the management of the integrated coal and steel productions of the six member states of the ECSC, but also the future course of European integration. The network concept thus provides important analytical tools to reassess the role of formal and informal ‘advisers’ in the Schuman Plan negotiations and advance the literature that has in fact gone beyond the governmental level of analysis.
83 In short, relying heavily on actors who provided expertise – formally in the working groups and informally in transatlantic policy networks – was clearly motivated by the deliberate exclusion of the expertise other groups of actors might have brought to the negotiations. Conclusions The various functions of informal transatlantic cooperation at the Schuman Plan conference underline once more that leading actors 32 Brigitte Leucht in 1950–51 were not motivated by the ‘rescue of the nation-state’, as Milward has emphasized.
With the exception of Hirsch, who was born in 1901, all actors of the US Embassy working group were born after 1909: Ball and Bowie, 1909; Reuter and Uri, 1911; and Tomlinson, 1918. These younger actors had only progressed to a certain stage in their career development by 1950. An older generation, with more extensive experience and at the peak of their careers, comprised Monnet and McCloy born in 1888 and 1895, respectively. They not only acted as facilitators, but also fulfilled a second function at the interstate conference by mediating between the US Embassy working group and high-ranking officials who exercised political influence such as US Secretary of State Dean Acheson.