Wadi Hammeh 27, an Early Natufian Settlement at Pella in by Phillip C. Edwards

By Phillip C. Edwards

Wadi Hammeh 27, an Early Natufian cost at Pella in Jordan is an in depth document on probably the most very important Natufian websites to have emerged some time past thirty years and an built-in research and interpretation of subsistence concepts, cost styles and formality existence in a single of the world’s earliest village groups. The 14,000-year-old payment of Wadi Hammeh 27 is without doubt one of the such a lot dazzling websites of its sort, that includes the biggest, most intricate pre-Neolithic architectural advanced but found within the center East, an remarkable sequence of artefact caches and job parts, and a wealthy corpus of past due Ice Age artwork items.

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A small number of them are held by the Nicholson Museum at the University of Sydney. The engraved siltstone slab (RN 60401) is held in the collections of the Australian National Gallery (Wallace 1995) with several other items chapter one 14 Fig. 13. Ben Churcher in 1988 excavating Artefact Cluster 11, a cache of basaltic groundstone tools. from the site. Additional lithic specimens are held in the laboratories of the Archaeology Program at La Trobe University. 8 Structure of the Report The following report begins with a summary of the ancient and modern resources of Wadi alHammeh (Chapter 2 by Edwards), which sets Wadi Hammeh 27 in its contemporaneous regional context.

This spectrum reveals cold and dry conditions. Zone 2 corresponds to the late Glacial period (14,500 – 10,540 bp or 15,500–10,500 cal bc), revealing an ameliorating climate with arboreal pollen rising to 76%. Evergreen oak (Quercus calliprinos) and pistachio (Pistacia) become slightly more common with respect to the dominant deciduous oak. The Younger Dryas period at the end of the Pleistocene is represented by Zone 3 (dated 10,540-9,540 bp or 10,500-9,000 cal bc), which exhibits a rapid decline in deciduous oak, a corresponding increase in grass pollen, and an increase in steppic shrubs and bushes such as Artemisia.

Operations continued through eight seasons of varying duration, usually of six to eight weeks in the Jordanian winter (December to February). Occupational deposits relating to a constructional phase which was later called ‘Phase 1’ were found to continue through all excavation areas. Two smaller test pits were dug to ascertain the boundaries of the site. 5 metres to the south of Plot XX J (Fig. 8). Progress over such a large area was necessarily slow, since all excavated matrix was sieved; firstly dry-sieved through a 5-millimetre mesh, and after the first season, though a 3-millimetre mesh.

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