# When Life is Linear: From Computer Graphics to Bracketology by Tim Chartier

By Tim Chartier

From simulating complicated phenomenon on supercomputers to storing the coordinates wanted in glossy 3D printing, information is a big and growing to be a part of our global. an immense software to govern and learn this knowledge is linear algebra. This e-book introduces techniques of matrix algebra with an emphasis on program, rather within the fields of special effects and information mining. Readers will learn how to make a picture obvious, compress a picture and rotate a 3D wireframe version. In information mining, readers will use linear algebra to learn zip codes on envelopes and encrypt delicate info. The books information equipment in the back of net seek, used by such businesses as Google, and algorithms for activities rating that have been utilized to making brackets for March insanity and are expecting results in FIFA international Cup football. The e-book can function its personal source or to complement a direction on linear algebra.

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**Example text**

Now, let’s use cosine similarity. For the 1977 film Star Wars, the three closest films, as measured with cosine similarity, are Return of the Jedi (1983), Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), and The Empire Strikes Back (1980). These movies were the closest under Euclidean distance, too. For Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the closest film is Beauty and the Beast from 1991. Then comes Cinderella (1950) and Pinocchio (1940). Under Euclidean distance, the closest movies were Pinocchio (1940), Cinderella (1950), and then Dumbo (1941).

The original Cartesian coordinates can be recovered by dividing the first two positions by the third. Any single point in Cartesian coordinates can be represented by infinitely many homogeneous coordinates. Let’s see how easy it is to take the model bird and perform each of the maneuvers. If we want to translate a point (x, y, 1) by h along the x-axis and k along the y-axis, we multiply the point by the matrix ⎡ 1 ⎣0 0 0 1 0 ⎤ h k⎦ 1 since ⎡ 1 ⎣0 0 0 1 0 ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ h x x +h k ⎦⎣y⎦ = ⎣ y + k ⎦. 1 1 1 A rotation by θ degrees about the origin corresponds to multiplying the point by ⎡ cos θ ⎣ sin θ 0 − sin θ cos θ 0 ⎤ 0 0⎦.

Our computation is, in fact, a dot product. For the example, if we are interested in a pixel with values 40, 25, and 20 then the new image would have the pixel in the same location colored with the value of 40 25 20 · 1 −2 1 . More generally, let ui, j = pi, j+1 pi, j pi, j−1 , where pi, j equals the value of the pixel (i, j) in the image. Then, we replace pixel pi, j in the image with ui, j · 1 −2 1 . What does this look like for an image? 10. The grayscale image of the Mona Lisa (a) undergoes horizontal edge detection (b) with the image in (b) inverted to produce (c).